The NATO Phonetic Alphabet was developed in the 1950s to be intelligible (and pronounceable) to all NATO allies in the heat of battle. It replaced other phonetic alphabets, for example the US military “able baker” alphabet.
The NATO Phonetic Alphabet is now widely used in business and telecommunications in Europe and North America. There are dozens of other standards in use throughout the world, but then the great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from. There are variations in some countries to avoid confusion with local place names and native languages.